Most dates on the Hindu calendar are based on the movements of the Moon and not the Sun. For this reason the Hindu calendar is a lunar calendar. One exception to this is Makara Sankranti which is calculated according to solar movements and so always takes place on January 14th.
Makara refers to the Makara rashi which is the sign of the zodiac corresponding to Capricorn. Sankranti means “to cross into.” Makara Sankranti is therefore the day that the sun moves into the sign of the zodiac known as Capricorn.
This event is marked by different celebrations all over India with various customs such as flying kites in Gujarat, bringing of different sesame offerings to temples, and so on.